[14] The prevailing, though not completely settled, view is that the hotspot has been largely stationary within the planet's mantle for much, if not all of the Cenozoic Era. [5] Continued explosive activity at the summit caused a months-long closure of the Kīlauea section of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. This was by far its longest-duration historical period of activity, as well as one of the longest-duration eruptions in the world; as of January 2011, the eruption had produced 3.5 km3 (1 cu mi) of lava and resurfaced 123.2 km2 (48 sq mi) of land. [22], The length and origin of these eruptions have also varied. [64], Together with the outbreak of lava in lower Puna, a lava lake at Halemaʻumaʻu at Kilauea's summit began to drop on May 2, 2018. Since then, the volcano's activity has likely been as it is now, a continual stream of effusive and explosive eruptions of roughly the same pattern as its activity in the last 200 or 300 years. [83], Much of Kīlauea's southern ecosystem lies within the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, where a’e ferns, ʻōhiʻa trees (Metrosideros polymorpha), and hapu’u of the genus Cibotium are common. At the summit, a vent within Halema‘uma‘u hosted an active lava pond and vigorous gas plume from 2008 to 2018. ʻOpeʻapeʻa (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) ʻio (Buteo solitarius), common ʻamakihi (Hemignathus virens), and nananana makakiʻi (Theridion grallator) live in the trees. Topographically Kīlauea appears as only a bulge on the southeastern flank of Mauna Loa, and so for many years Kīlauea was thought to be a mere satellite of its giant neighbor, not a separate volcano. [86], Some of the area alongside Kīlauea's southwestern rift zone takes the form of the unusual Kaʻū Desert. Visitors associated with the military can find lodging at the Kilauea Military Camp. The period between 1840 and 1920 saw approximately half that in eruptive volume, and in the thirty years between then and about 1950, the volcano was unusually quiet and exhibited very little activity; Kīlauea's eruptive volume has increased steadily since then, with present activity comparable to that of the early 1800s. Although it has since been largely buried by younger flows, it remains exposed in some places, and has been traced more than 20 km (12 mi) from the volcano's caldera, evidence of very powerful eruptions. Kūpaʻianahā built up a low, broad volcanic shield, and lava tubes fed flows extending 11 to 12 km (about 7 mi) to the sea. Plant life in the region is practically nonexistent. It is just one of the five volcanoes that make up Hawaii. Kīlauea is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands. [91], The first Ancient Hawaiians to arrive on Hawaii island lived along the shores, where food and water were plentiful. Vigorous eruptive lava fountains in lower Puna sent destructive rivers of molten rock into the ocean in three places. [94] The prevailing lowland forest ecosystem was transformed from forest to grassland; some of this change was caused by the use of fire, but the main reason appears to have been the introduction of the Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans). The rusty singed appearance of the young fronds of the ʻamaʻumaʻu is said to be a product of the legendary struggle. Evidence suggests the existence of an active eruptive center at this time, termed the Powers Caldera, whose fractures and faults lie 2 km (1 mi) outside the modern caldera. [74] By 7:30 a.m. on December 25, 2020, the lava lake had filled in 176 metres (577 ft) of the crater, and the level of the lake was continuing to rise. [22], Kīlauea has been active throughout its history. [35] Kīlauea has been the site of 61 separate eruptions since 1823, easily making it one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. As of December 2020[update], it is the twelfth-longest duration volcanic eruption on Earth since 1750. [100] Dana visited Kīlauea's summit and described it in detail in 1840. [29], Kīlauea has two rift zones radiating from its summit, one leading 125 km (78 mi) out to the east, the other 35 km (22 mi) long and trending towards the southwest. Kīlauea's most recent eruption (before the currently ongoing one) began on January 3, 1983, and ended in 2018. Thurston, who owned the Honolulu Advertiser newspaper, printed editorials in favor of the idea; by 1911 Governor Walter F. Frear had proposed a draft bill to create "Kilauea National Park". In Hawaii, this cursed year is going out with even more horror. [22] A major feature within the caldera is Halemaʻumaʻu, a large pit crater and one of Kīlauea's most historically active eruption centers. After eruptive activity had died down, there was a magnitude 7.2 earthquake that caused a partial summit collapse, after which activity did not resume at Kīlauea until 1977. Located along the southeastern shore of the island, the volcano is between 210,000 and 280,000 years old and emerged above sea level about 100,000 years ago. [22], Geologists have dated and documented dozens of major eruptions over the volcano's long history, bridging the long gap between Kīlauea's oldest known rock and only extremely recent written records and historical observation. A Landsat8 image (top) of Kilauea volcano taken on March 15, 2018. Kilauea volcano. Its most recent eruption began on December 20, 2020. Recent activity has mostly shifted to Kīlauea's eastern rift zone, the site of 24 historical eruptions, located mostly on its upper section; by contrast, the volcano's southwestern rift zone has been relatively quiet, and has only been the site of five events to date. Halemaʻumaʻu, a fully formed pit crater after the 1919 event and the site of a sizable lava lake, first drained, then quickly began sinking into the ground, deepening to nearly 210 m (689 ft) beneath a thick cloud of volcanic ash. On March 19, 2008, following several months of increased sulfur dioxide emissions and seismic tremor, a new vent opened at Halemaʻumaʻu at Kilauea's summit in an explosive eruption. Mon, 1 Feb 2021, 11:23. Beginning in February 2010, a lava pond was visible at the bottom of the crater almost continuously through the beginning of May 2018. Historically, it is the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the Big Island of Hawaiʻi. Its physiographic province is 500 m (1,640 ft) deep, but it is unknown whether it is a shallow listric fault or if it penetrates to the very base of the volcano. Hawaiians used the word Kīlauea only for the summit caldera, but earth scientists and, over time, popular usage have extended the name to include the entire volcano. [14][15] However, while the Hawaiian mantle plume is well understood and extensively studied, the nature of hotspots themselves remains fairly enigmatic. Hawaii's Kilauea volcano erupts 00:59. Shield volcanoes (like Kilauea) are shaped like a bowl in the middle with long gentle slopes made by basaltic lava flows – this is the most common type of lava on Earth and consists of high amounts of iron and magnesium. According to USGS, Kilauea is “considered to be in the shield-building stage of Hawaiian volcanism”. Global Volcanism Program, 2017. Eruptions in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea volcano began in early May, 2018. Location: Island of Hawai‘iLatitude: 19.421° NLongitude: 155.287° WElevation: 1,222 (m) 4,009 (f)Volcano type: ShieldComposition: BasaltMost recent eruption: 2018Nearby towns: Volcano, Pāhoa, Kalapana, Mountain ViewThreat Potential: Very High *, Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, Photo and Video Chronology – Kīlauea – February 23, 2021, Photo and Video Chronology – Kīlauea – February 22, 2021, Photo and Video Chronology – Kīlauea – February 19, 2021. [4] By the following morning, emergency officials reported that the eruption had stabilized and that two of the three vents remained active and continued to fill the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu with lava. Located at the edge of Kīlauea Caldera, the museum's observation deck offered the best sheltered view on the volcano of the activity at Halemaʻumaʻu; however, the museum closed indefinitely after the building housing it sustained structural damage from earthquakes associated with the 2018 eruptive episodes. In historical times, Kilauea has been Hawaii’s most active volcano. Most volcanoes on Earth are of this type. [22] A series of fault scarps connecting the two rift zones form the Koa'e Fault Zone. The Kilauea caldera is the main crater, but there are more than 10 other craters on the volcano, mainly along its East Rift Zone. The eruption of 1790 has a VEI of 4. [37], The volcano was active again in 1868, 1877, 1884, 1885, 1894, and 1918,[23] before its next major eruption in 1918–1919. [104], NASA used the area to geologically train the Apollo Astronauts in recognizing volcanic features, planning traverses, collecting samples and taking photographs. [102]:154–155, The next era of Kīlauea's history began with the establishment of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory on the volcano's rim in 1912. The eruption was preceded by earthquake swarms centered at Kīlauea Caldera on November 30, 2020 and December 2, 2020, the second of which was interpreted as a small intrusion of magma. An aerial view in 1985 looks from Kilauea caldera in the foreground down the East Rift Zone to the steaming Puu O'o vent in the center background. The eruption continued and formed numerous eruption columns up to and beyond 9 km (6 mi) in height, before slowly petering down and ending by May 28. Its most recent eruption began on December 20, 2020.[4]. The eruption started as a fissure between two pit craters, ʻĀloʻi and ʻAlae, where the Mauna Ulu shield would eventually form. ( top ) of Kilauea volcano ( Hawai ' i by many Native as! Curving line of volcanoes that together form the Big Island of Oʻahu an. 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